Northern Rhodesian general election, 1962

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General elections were held in Northern Rhodesia on 30 October 1962, with by-elections for several seats held on 10 December. Although the United Federal Party won the most seats and Northern Rhodesian African National Congress leader Harry Nkumbula had made a secret electoral pact with the UFP, he decided to form a government with the United National Independence Party.

Electoral system

The elections were carried out under the "15-15-15" system, with 15 seats elected by an upper roll, 15 seats by a lower roll and 15 seats by the national roll. The initial plan for the national roll seats was that candidates would have to receive at least 15% of the vote from both the upper and lower rolls to be elected.[1] However, this was fiercely opposed by Prime Minister of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Roy Welensky, as the lower roll was likely to be entirely black, giving his UFP little chance of winning seats.[2] The system was later changed to require candidates to receive at least 10% of the vote from each race,[3] and at least 20% of the vote from either the upper or lower roll.[4]

To qualify for the upper roll, voters had to have an income of at least £720 or own at least £1,500 of immovable property. This was reduced to £480/£1,000 for those with a full primary education and £300/£1,000 for those with at least four years of secondary education. Several people were automatically allowed to register as upper roll voters, including chiefs, hereditary councillors, members of native authorities and courts, municipal councils, township housing boards and area housing boards, ministers of religion, members of certain religions with at least two years of secondary education, pensioners, university graduates, holders of an award from the Queen, those with a letter of exemption under the African Exemption Ordinance dated prior to 1 July 1961, or be the wife of a qualified upper roll voter (in polygamous marriages, only the senior wife qualified).[5] Lower roll voters had to have an income of at least £120 or own immovable property worth at least £250. Certain other people were automatically entitled to be a lower roll voter, including tribal councillors, members of native authorities and courts, municipal councils, township housing boards and area housing boards, headmen, pensioners, members of certain religious bodies, holders of an award from the Queen, or people registered as Individual, Peasant or Improved Farmers for two years prior to their application. The wife (or senior wife) of anyone qualifying to be a lower roll voter also qualified.[5]

The upper roll had a total of 37,142 voters, of which 27,893 were European, 7,321 were African and 1,928 were Asian. The lower roll had 91,941 voters, of which 91,913 were African and 28 Asian.[6]

In order to vote, voters had to dip their thumbs in red ink, which would remain for two days. In Lusaka two European voters refused to dip their thumbs, and were barred from voting. One, Colin Cunningham, a former leader of the Rhodesian Republican Party, claimed it would be "trespass against his person."[7]

Campaign

UNIP leader Kenneth Kaunda spoke at over a hundred meetings during the campaign.[8] In Sweden the Social Democratic Party and the Liberal Party started an appeal for £20,000 to contribute to UNIP's election campaign, calling federal UFP leader Roy Welensky "sabre-rattling" and a "leader of the white Fascists."[8] The campaign raised only £3,700.[8]

Conduct

On 26 October NRANC official Danwell Kuseka was killed when he was ambushed after an election meeting near Kitwe; three others were injured, one with a broken back. Kaunda called for UNIP members to co-operate with the police in finding the attackers.[8] African candidates for the UFP were reported to have experienced a "living hell of intimidation."[8] Polling day took place largely without incident and saw a high turnout.[7] In the Congolese city of Elisabethville a group of 100 Northern Rhodesians attended the British Consul to vote. However, after they discovered that only 17 of them had registered, they stormed the building and stoned the consul, resulting in him being hospitalised. Congolese police arrested 15 of the group.[7]

Results

On election day, 14 of the upper roll seats and all 15 lower roll seats were decided, but only five of the 15 national seats; the UFP won 15 seats, UNIP 14 and the NRANC five. By-elections were subsequently held on 10 December for the Livingstone upper roll seats, and for the ten remaining national seats, with the UFP winning in Livingstone, and the NRANC winning the only two national roll seats to have a winner, leaving the UFP with a final total of 16 seats and the NRANC with seven.

Party Upper roll Lower roll National
roll
Total
seats
+/−
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
United National Independence Party 4,519 14.79 1 59,648 78.16 12 1 14 New
United Federal Party 21,558 70.54 13 180 0.24 0 2 15 +2
Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 1,025 3.35 0 16,268 21.32 3 4 7 +6
Liberal Party 1,401 4.58 0 83 0.11 0 0 0 –3
Rhodesia Republican Party 65 0.21 0 0 0 New
Barotseland National Party 134 0.18 0 0 0 New
Independents 1,992 6.52 0 0 0 −2
Vacant 1 8 9
Invalid/blank votes 598 3,488
Total 31,158 100 15 79,801 100 15 15 45 +25
Registered voters/turnout 34,527 90.24 92,255 86.50
Source: Mulford, pp189–190

By constituency

Constituency Candidate Party Votes % Invalid/
blank
Total Registered Turnout
Upper roll
Broken Hill John Roberts United Federal Party 1,801 67 2,193 2,634 83.3
I B Nkonde United National Independence Party 290
A Price Liberal Party 35
Chingola Samuel Magnus United Federal Party 1,668 16 2,330 2,492 93.5
C M Morris Independent 646
Eastern Rural Alfred Carlisle United Federal Party 1,243 50 2,244 2,520 89.0
H W Gardner United National Independence Party 555
E Randloph Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 201
O C Carruthers Liberal Party 195
Kitwe East Jerry Steyn United Federal Party 2,328 43 2,610 2,794 93.4
G E Mushikwa United National Independence Party 179
J Percy Liberal Party 60
Kitwe West Hugh Stanley United Federal Party 1,936 50 2,400 2,624 91.5
U G Mwila United National Independence Party 311
K A Mills Liberal Party 103
Livingstone Election postponed due to death of candidate
Luanshya-Kansenji Cecil Dennistoun Burney United Federal Party 1,638 43 2,262 2,458 92.0
T L Desai United National Independence Party 390
M W Wijnberg Liberal Party 191
Lusaka East Gabriel Musumbulwa United Federal Party 1,806 15 2,460 2,713 90.7
R Allard Liberal Party 297
S A Wateridge Independent 236
L Terry Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 79
F J G Triegaardt Rhodesia Republican Party 27
Lusaka West Hugh Mitchley United Federal Party 1,607 78 2,592 2,863 90.5
E Kreft Independent 633
G S Mwanza Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 152
S Hutt Liberal Party 122
Mufulira Pieter Wulff United Federal Party 2,224 14 2,575 2,752 93.6
A C Stevens Independent 337
Ndola East Thomas Lawler United Federal Party 1,728 38 2,198 2,401 91.5
T M D Ntine United National Independence Party 221
C D Smith Liberal Party 211
Northern Rural John Mwanakatwe United National Independence Party 1,172 37 1,646 1,900 86.6
V A Shona Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 297
U J Moffat Independent 140
Roan Hendrick Liebenberg United Federal Party 1,564 46 1,986 2,302 86.3
M K Nayooto United National Independence Party 309
W Kirby Liberal Party 67
Southern Rural John Burnside United Federal Party 588 61 1,516 1,726 87.8
M M Nalumango United National Independence Party 491
G A Patel Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 296
R Harvey Liberal Party 42
C F Kirstein Rhodesia Republican Party 38
Western Rural Norman Coates United Federal Party 1,427 40 2,146 2,348 91.4
J W Shaw United National Independence Party 601
R E Farmer Liberal Party 78
Lower roll
Bangweulu Kenneth Kaunda United National Independence Party 4,347 126 4,702 5,134 91.6
H Kasokola Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 229
Barotseland East Arthur Wina United National Independence Party 1,057 66 1,188 1,460 81.4
F L Suu Barotseland National Party 65
Barotseland West Mubiana Nalilungwe United National Independence Party 688 151 985 1,271 77.5
G M Mukande Barotseland National Party 69
I M Singulwani Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 42
B M Akombelwa Liberal Party 35
Copperbelt Central Alexander Zulu United National Independence Party 14,371 56 16,474 19,460 84.7
L B Lombe Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 1,947
E M Daimon United Federal Party 100
Copperbelt East John Chisata United National Independence Party 11,896 447 13,172 14,933 88.2
S P Chanda Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 829
Copperbelt West Sikota Wina United National Independence Party 5,217 298 5,740 6,683 85.9
N J Chindefu Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 225
Eastern Wesley Nyirenda United National Independence Party 1,655 305 2,783 3,120 89.2
J S Soko Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 792
N D Chabinga Liberal Party 31
Lusaka Rural Edward Liso Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 1,606 199 2,894 3,399 85.1
S Kalulu United National Independence Party 1,061
M J Nkabika United Federal Party 28
Midlands Elijah Mudenda United National Independence Party 7,819 827 11,926 14,569 81.9
J E M Michello Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 3,280
Muchinga Aaron Milner United National Independence Party 2,742 109 2,934 3,211 91.4
C Sinyangwe Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 55
G M Kabichi United Federal Party 28
Northern Simon Kapwepwe United National Independence Party 3,840 124 4,075 4,534 89.9
Dauti Yamba Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 87
D B Lisubu United Federal Party 24
North-Western Samuel Mblishi United National Independence Party 1,419 83 1,783 1,953 91.3
C S Chizawu Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 264
Y Chikombe Liberal Party 17
South-Eastern Reuben Kamanga United National Independence Party 1,468 320 2,476 2,872 86.2
H A Thornicroft Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 688
Southern Chiwala Banda Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 2,300 184 3,936 4,444 88.6
H G Habanyama United National Independence Party 1,452
South-Western Harry Nkumbula Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 3,924 193 4,733 5,212 90.8
C S Mukando United National Independence Party 616
Source: Mulford, pp189–190
National seats
Constituency Candidate Party Votes Notes
European African Upper roll Lower roll
Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes %
Chambeshi
(African)
Mwendapole United National Independence Party 69 1.6 11,286 93.6 774 15.0 10,581 93.8
Chubuye United Federal Party 4,082 93.3 69 0.6 4,094 79.6 57 0.5
Ndilila Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 49 1.1 645 5.3 97 1.9 597 5.3
Chitimukulu Liberal Party 173 4.0 58 0.5 180 3.5 51 0.5
Chambeshi
(European)
Stewart Gore-Browne United National Independence Party 55 1.3 11,264 93.4 756 14.7 10,563 93.6
Mitchell United Federal Party 4,152 94.9 669 5.5 4,207 81.8 614 5.4
Moffat Liberal Party 166 3.8 125 1.0 182 3.5 109 1.0
Kabompo (2 seats) No candidate achieved the vote share required
Kafubu
(African)
Mwiinga United National Independence Party 65 1.2 12,081 92.9 767 12.7 11,379 93.1
Kapota Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 4,762 90.7 808 6.2 4,828 80.0 742 6.1
Kafubuliti Liberal Party 422 8.0 111 0.9 438 7.3 95 0.8
Kafubu
(European)
Temple United National Independence Party 65 1.2 12,030 93.2 688 11.6 11,407 93.4
Malcolmson United Federal Party 4,853 92.5 769 6.0 4,910 82.6 712 5.8
Escourt Liberal Party 329 6.3 111 0.9 343 5.8 97 0.8
Lower Kafue
(African)
Puta United National Independence Party 93 2.7 6,769 71.8 683 16.0 6,179 71.4
Francis Chembe Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 3,252 93.3 2,570 27.2 3,442 80.6 2,380 27.5 Elected
Kalima Liberal Party 142 4.1 94 1.0 146 3.4 90 1.0
Lower Kafue
(European)
Tidder United National Independence Party 75 2.2 6,699 71.0 667 15.6 6,107 70.6
Duff Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 19 0.5 213 2.3 40 0.9 192 2.2
Jack Eaton United Federal Party 3,166 90.8 2,304 24.4 3,314 77.6 2,156 24.9 Elected
Percy Liberal Party 159 4.6 108 1.1 172 4.0 95 1.1
Butler Rhodesia Republican Party 68 2.0 109 1.2 78 1.8 99 1.1
Luangwa
(African)
Mumpanshya United National Independence Party 148 4.2 5,418 63.8 767 17.6 4,799 62.5
Philemon Zindana United Federal Party 2,769 78.2 1,645 19.4 2,860 65.6 1,554 20.3 Elected
Alfred Gondwe Liberal Party 624 17.6 1,429 16.8 732 16.8 1,321 17.2
Luangwa
(European)
Skinner United National Independence Party 126 3.6 5,285 62.2 717 16.4 4,694 61.2
Charles Cousins Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 2,711 76.6 2,929 34.5 2,903 66.6 2,737 35.7 Elected
John Moffat Liberal Party 525 14.8 209 2.5 553 12.7 181 2.4
Dahl Rhodesia Republican Party 179 5.1 69 0.8 186 4.3 62 0.8
Luapula (2 seats) No candidate achieved the vote share required
Zambezi (2 seats) No candidate achieved the vote share required
Special National
Constituency
Kashibhai Patel Independent (UNIP) 1,071 62.3 Elected
J D Naik Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 519 30.2
I M Bagas Independent 129 7.5
Source: Mulford

By-elections

Constituency Candidate Party Votes % Notes
Upper roll
Livingstone James MacMillan United Federal Party 1,584 Elected
United National Independence Party 417
Northern Rhodesian African National Congress 176
National seats
Chambeshi (African) No candidate achieved the vote share required
Chambeshi (European) No candidate achieved the vote share required
Kabompo (2 seats) No candidate achieved the vote share required
Kafubu (African) No candidate achieved the vote share required
Kafubu (European) No candidate achieved the vote share required
Luapula Francis Stubbs Northern Rhodesian African National Congress Elected
No candidate achieved the vote share required
Zambezi Job Mayanda Northern Rhodesian African National Congress Elected
No candidate achieved the vote share required
Source: East Africa and Rhodesia[9]

Aftermath

With almost all candidates losing their deposits, the three Liberal Party ministers (John Moffat, Harry Franklin and Alfred Gondwe) resigned immediately after the elections.[7] In mid-November the party announced that it was disbanding, with members advised to join or support UNIP instead.[10]

Nkumbula held talks with both Kaunda and Roberts about the formation of a coalition government, saying he would consider a coalition with UNIP "if Kaunda and his henchmen made a statement unreservedly condemning Communism and the use of violence and intimidation.", and a coalition with the UFP if "thy stated that they wanted to see the end of political federation and its replacement with only an economic association".[7] Kaunda subsequently released a statement stating "I believe that both Mr. Nkumbula and myself should forget the bitterness of the past and do what we can to establish majority rule in this country.[7] On 14 December Governor Evelyn Hone announced the formation of a coalition government by UNIP and the NRARNC.

Minister Party Position
Kenneth Kaunda United National Independence Party Minister of Local Government and Social Welfare
Simon Kapwepwe United National Independence Party Minister of African Agriculture
Harry Nkumbula Northern Rhodesian African National Congress Minister of African Education
Trevor Gardner Ex officio Minister of Finance
Reuben Kamanga United National Independence Party Minister of Labour and Mines
Charles Cousins Northern Rhodesian African National Congress Minister of Land and Natural Resources
Brian Andre Doyle Ex officio Minister for Legal Affairs and Attorney General
F M Thomas Ex officio Minister of Native Affairs
Francis Stubbs Northern Rhodesian African National Congress Minister of Transport and Works
Richard Luyt Ex officio Chief Secretary
Source: East Africa and Rhodesia[9]

References

  1. David C. Mulford (1964) The Northern Rhodesian General Election 1962, Oxford University Press, p22−23
  2. Andrew Sardanis (2011) Africa: Another Side of the Coin: Northern Rhodesia's Final Years and Zambia's Nationhood, I.B.Tauris, pp89−91
  3. Mulford, p29
  4. Mulford, p28
  5. 5.0 5.1 Mulford pp50−51
  6. Dolf Sternberger, Bernhard Vogel, Dieter Nohlen & Klaus Landfried (1978) Die Wahl der Parlamente: Band II: Afrika, Zweiter Halbband, p1790
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 "Northern Rhodesia's First Slide-Rule General Election", East Africa and Rhodesia, 8 November 1962, pp217–218
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 "High Poll, No Violence", East Africa and Rhodesia, 1 November 1962, p202
  9. 9.0 9.1 "U.N.I.P.–A.N.C. Coalition Government for Northern Rhodesia", East Africa and Rhodesia, 20 December 1962, p345
  10. "Legislative Council Boycott Threat", East Africa and Rhodesia, 15 November 1962, p243