Difference between revisions of "Cecil Rhodes"

From Chalo Chatu, Zambia online encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Line 33: Line 33:
  
 
'''Cecil John Rhodes''' [[Wikipedia:Privy Council of the United Kingdom|PC]] (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902){{sfn|The Times|27 March 1902}} was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in South Africa, who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896. An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his [[British South Africa Company]] founded the southern African territory of [[Rhodesia (region)|Rhodesia]] (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895. South Africa's Rhodes University is also named after him. Rhodes set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, which is funded by his estate, and put much effort towards his vision of a Cape to Cairo Railway through British territory.
 
'''Cecil John Rhodes''' [[Wikipedia:Privy Council of the United Kingdom|PC]] (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902){{sfn|The Times|27 March 1902}} was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in South Africa, who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896. An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his [[British South Africa Company]] founded the southern African territory of [[Rhodesia (region)|Rhodesia]] (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895. South Africa's Rhodes University is also named after him. Rhodes set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, which is funded by his estate, and put much effort towards his vision of a Cape to Cairo Railway through British territory.
 +
 +
== Notes ==
 +
{{notelist}}
 +
 +
== References ==
 +
{{reflist|16em}}
 +
 +
== Sources ==
 +
{{Refbegin|30em}}
 +
 +
=== Monographs ===
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Aldrich and Wotherspoon|2001|p=}}|last1=Aldrich|first1=Robert |last2=Wotherspoon|first2=Garry |title=Who's who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity to World War II|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=giM73n_lca4C|year=2001|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-15982-1}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Bigelow and Peterson|2002|p=}}|last1=Bigelow|first1=Bill |last2=Peterson|first2=Bob |title=Rethinking Globalization: Teaching for Justice in an Unjust World|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=gfv2NePkYngC|year=2002|publisher=Rethinking Schools|location= Milwaukee|isbn=978-0-942961-28-7}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Boschendal|2007|p=}}|author=Anon|title=Boschendal: founded 1685|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=HSw_AQAAIAAJ|year=2007|publisher=Boschendal Ltd.|isbn=978-0-620-38001-0}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Britten|2006|p=}}|last=Britten|first=Sarah |title=The Art of the South African Insult|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=sZTLigR2t5UC&pg=PA167|year=2006|publisher=30° South Publishers|isbn=978-1-920143-05-3}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Colvin|1922|p=}}|last=Colvin|first=Ian |authorlink=Ian Colvin|title=The Life of Jameson|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=rTT4QgAACAAJ|year=1922|publisher=E. Arnold and Co.|location=London|isbn=978-1-116-69524-3}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Currey and Simons|1986|p=}}|last1=Currey|first1=John Blades |last2=Simons|first2=Phillida Brooke |title=1850 to 1900: fifty years in the Cape Colony|url= https://books.google.com/books?id=bFIwAAAAYAAJ|year=1986|publisher=Brenthurst Press|isbn=978-0-909079-31-4}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Davidson|2003|p=}}|last=Davidson|first=Apollon Borisovich |others=Christopher English (trans.) |title=Cecil Rhodes and his Time|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=8TlzAAAAMAAJ|year=2003|publisher=Protea Book House|isbn=978-1-919825-24-3}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Epstein|1982|p=}}|last=Epstein|first=Edward Jay |title=The rise and fall of diamonds: the shattering of a brilliant illusion|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=yxRkAAAAIAAJ|year=1982|publisher=Simon and Schuster}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Ferguson|1999|p=}}|last=Ferguson|first=Niall |title=The house of Rothschild: the world's banker, 1849-1999|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=dx-8AAAAIAAJ|year=1999|publisher=Viking|isbn=978-0-670-88794-1}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Flint|2009|p=}}|last=Flint|first=John |title=Cecil Rhodes|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=S2seF1l3VxAC|year=2009|publisher=Little, Brown|isbn=978-0-316-08670-7}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Johari|1993|p=}}|last=Johari|first=J. C. |title=Voices Of Indian Freedom Movement|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=B78lsRxhd-0C|year=1993|publisher=Anmol Publications Pvt. Limited|isbn=978-81-7158-225-9}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Knowles|2005|p=}}|last1=Knowles|first1=Lilian Charlotte Anne |last2=Knowles|first2= Charles Matthew |title=The Economic Development of the British Overseas Empire|url= https://books.google.com/books?id=SoaY8HBBcKQC|year=2005|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=9780415350488}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Le Sueur|1913|p=}}|last=Le Sueur|first=Gordon |title=Cecil Rhodes. The Man and His Work|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=fuX_MgEACAAJ|year=1913|location=London}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Magubane|1996|p=}}|last=Magubane|first=Bernard M. |title=The Making of a Racist State: British Imperialism and the Union of South Africa, 1875–1910 | year=1996|publisher=Africa World Press|location=Trenton, New Jersey |isbn=978-0865432413}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Martin|2009|p=}}|last=Martin|first=Meredith|title=Diamonds, Gold, and War: The British, the Boers, and the Making of South Africa|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=7pEengEACAAJ|year=2009|publisher=CreateSpace|isbn=978-1-4587-1877-8}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Massie|1991|p=}} |last=Massie|first=Robert K. |title=Dreadnought: Britain, Germany and the Coming of the Great War|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9RVKdVFK0VcC |year=1991|publisher=Jonathan Cape|location=London|isbn=9781781856680|authorlink=Robert Massie}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Maylam|2005|p=}}|last=Maylam|first=Paul |title=The Cult of Rhodes: Remembering an Imperialist in Africa|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=VbD_mokWhL8C&pg=PT56|year=2005|publisher=New Africa Books|isbn=978-0-86486-684-4}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Millin|1933|p=}}|last=Millin|first=Sarah Gertrude |authorlink=Sarah Millin|title=Rhodes|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ysYdAAAAMAAJ|year=1933|publisher=Harper & brothers}}
 +
* {{cite book |ref={{sfnref| Oberholster |1987|p=91}}|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=o3INAQAAIAAJ | title=Paarl Valley, 1687–1987 | year=1987 | isbn=0-7969-0539-8 |last1=Oberholster |first1=A. G. |last2=Van Breda |first2=Pieter |  publisher=Human Sciences Research Council}}
 +
*{{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Thomas Pakenham|1992|p=}}|last=Pakenham|first=Thomas|title=Boer War|url= https://books.google.com/books?id=JjEPngEACAAJ|date=1 December 1992|publisher=HarperCollins|isbn=9780380720019}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Parsons|1993|p=}}|last=Parsons|first=Neil |title=A New History of Southern Africa|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=PVYqAAAACAAJ|year=1993|publisher=Macmillan|location=London|isbn=978-0-8419-5319-2}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Phelan|1913|p=}}|last=Phelan|first=T. |title=The Siege of Kimberley|url=http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/13777|year=1913|publisher=M.H. Gill and Son|location=Dublin|isbn=978-0-554-24773-1}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Picton-Seymour|1989|p=}}|last=Picton-Seymour|first=Désirée |title=Historical Buildings in South Africa|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Pg1QAAAAMAAJ|year=1989|publisher=Struikhof Publishers|isbn=978-0-947458-01-0}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Plomer|1984|p=}}|last=Plomer|first=William |title=Cecil Rhodes|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=BYwingEACAAJ|year=1984|publisher=D. Philip|isbn=978-0-08646018-9}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Radziwill|1918|p=}} |last=Radziwill|first=Princess Catherine |title=Cecil Rhodes: Man and Empire Maker|url=http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/16600|date=1918 |publisher= CASSELL & COMPANY, LTD |location=London, New York, Toronto and Melbourne |isbn=978-0-554-35300-5}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Rhodes|1902|p=}}|last=Rhodes|first=Cecil |editor=Stead, William Thomas |title=The Last Will and Testament of Cecil John Rhodes, with Elucidatory Notes, to which are Added Some Chapters Describing the Political and Religious Ideas of the Testator.|url=https://archive.org/details/lastwilltestamen00rhodiala|year=1902|location=London}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Roberts|1969|p=}}|last=Roberts|first=Brian |title=Cecil Rhodes and the Princess|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=_9MKAQAAIAAJ|year=1969|publisher=Lippincott}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Roberts|1976|p=}}|last=Roberts|first=Brian |title=Kimberley: Turbulent City|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ON71wM6U0ZMC|year=1976|publisher=D. Philip|isbn=978-0-949968-62-3}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Rosenthal|1965|p=}}|last=Rosenthal|first=Eric |title=South African Surnames|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=rgoJAQAAIAAJ|year=1965|publisher=H. Timmins}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Rotberg|1988|p=}}|last=Rotberg|first=Robert I. |author-link=Robert I. Rotberg|title=The Founder: Cecil Rhodes and the Pursuit of Power|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vgEaW-Gvie4C&pg=PA76|year=1988|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-987920-5}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Simpson and Jones|2000|p=}}|last1=Simpson|first1=William |last2=Jones|first2=Martin Desmond |title=Europe, 1783-1914|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=AGxlZbfJdy8C&pg=PA237|year=2000|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-22660-8}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Thomas|1997|p=}}|last=Thomas|first=Antony |title=Rhodes: Race for Africa|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=uzdzQgAACAAJ|year=1997|publisher=St. Martin's Press|isbn=978-0-312-16982-4}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Thompson|2007|p=}}|last=Thompson|first=J. Lee |title=Forgotten Patriot: A Life of Alfred, Viscount Milner of St. James's and Cape Town, 1854-1925|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=PDMcYymUie8C&pg=PA131|year=2007|publisher=Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press|isbn=978-0-8386-4121-7}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Twain|1898|p=}}|last=Twain|first=Mark|title=A Journey around the World|url=http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/2895|year=1898|publisher=The American Publishing Company|location=Hartford, CT}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Williams|1921|p=}}|last=Williams|first=Basil |title=Cecil Rhodes|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=A1txHgXvlU4C|year=1921|publisher=Holt}}
 +
 +
=== Encyclopedia ===
 +
* {{cite book |ref={{sfnref|Domville-Fife|1900 |p=89}}|last=Domville-Fife |first=C.W. |title=The encyclopedia of the British Empire the first encyclopedic record of the greatest empire in the history of the world |year=1900 |publisher=Rankin |location=Bristol |page=89 |url=https://archive.org/stream/encyclopediaofbr01domvuoft#page/88/mode/2up}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Farwell|2001|p=}}|last=Farwell|first=Byron |title=The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=m-XpP_pdANcC&pg=PA539|year=2001|publisher=W. W. Norton & Company|isbn=978-0-393-04770-7}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref={{sfnref|Panton|2015|p=}}|last=Panton|first=Kenneth J. |title=Historical Dictionary of the British Empire|year=2015|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|location=London|isbn=978-0810878013}}
 +
 +
=== Journal articles ===
 +
* {{cite journal | last =  Brown | first = Richard | date = November 1990 | title = The Colossus | journal = The Journal of African History | publisher = Cambridge University Press | volume = 31 | issue = 3 | pages = 499–502 | doi =  10.1017/S002185370003125X | ref = {{sfnref|Brown|1990}} }}
 +
* {{cite journal | last = Gray | first = J.A. | date = 1956 | title = A Country in Search of a Name | url = http://www.nrzam.org.uk/NRJ/V3N1/V3N1.htm | journal = The Northern Rhodesia Journal | volume = III | issue = 1 | pages = 75–78 | accessdate = August 2014 | ref = {{sfnref|Gray|1956}} }}
 +
* {{cite journal | last = Gray | first = J.A. | date = 1954 | title = First Records-? 6. The Name Rhodesia | url = http://www.nrzam.org.uk/NRJ/V2N4/V2N4.htm | journal = The Northern Rhodesia Journal | volume = II | issue = 4 | pages = 101–102 | accessdate = August 2014 | ref = {{sfnref|Gray|1954}} }}
 +
* {{cite journal|last=McFarlane|first=Richard A.|date=2007|title=Historiography of Selected Works on Cecil John Rhodes (1853–1902)|url=http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/history_in_africa/v034/34.1mcfarlane.html|journal=History in Africa|volume=34|pages=437–446|doi=10.1353/hia.2007.0013|accessdate=July 2014|ref={{sfnref|McFarlane|2007}}}}
 +
* {{cite journal|last1=Rotberg|first1=Robert I.|author-link=Robert I. Rotberg|title=Did Cecil Rhodes Really Try to Control the World?|journal=The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History| volume=42|issue=3 |year=2014|pages=551–567 |issn=0308-6534 |doi=10.1080/03086534.2014.934000}}
 +
* {{cite book|ref=harv|editor1-last=Wrigley|editor1-first=Richard |editor2-last=Craske|editor2-first=Matthew |last=Lowry|first=Donal|title=Pantheons: Transformations of a Monumental Idea|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=pD_z8thJyukC|year=2004|publisher=Ashgate|isbn=978-0-7546-0808-0|chapter='The granite of the ancient North': race, nation and empire at Cecil Rhodes's mountain mausoleum and Rhodes House, Oxford}}
  
 
=== Newspaper articles ===
 
=== Newspaper articles ===
Line 42: Line 101:
 
* {{cite news |ref={{sfnref|Laing|22 February 2012}}|title=Robert Mugabe blocks Cecil John Rhodes Exhumation |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/zimbabwe/9098490/Robert-Mugabe-blocks-Cecil-John-Rhodes-exhumation.html |date=22 February 2013 |work=The Telegraph |location=London |accessdate=1 April 2013 | first=Aislinn | last=Laing}}
 
* {{cite news |ref={{sfnref|Laing|22 February 2012}}|title=Robert Mugabe blocks Cecil John Rhodes Exhumation |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/zimbabwe/9098490/Robert-Mugabe-blocks-Cecil-John-Rhodes-exhumation.html |date=22 February 2013 |work=The Telegraph |location=London |accessdate=1 April 2013 | first=Aislinn | last=Laing}}
 
* {{cite news|ref={{sfnref|The Independent| 5 May 2001}}|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/leading-articles/the-lottery-of-life-683751.html|title= The Lottery of Life|newspaper= The Independent|date= 5 May 2001|accessdate= 26 January 2010}}
 
* {{cite news|ref={{sfnref|The Independent| 5 May 2001}}|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/leading-articles/the-lottery-of-life-683751.html|title= The Lottery of Life|newspaper= The Independent|date= 5 May 2001|accessdate= 26 January 2010}}
 +
 
=== Websites ===
 
=== Websites ===
 
* [http://www.pbs.org/empires/victoria/empire/rhodes.html PBS: Empires; Queen Victoria; The Changing Empire; Characters : Cecil Rhodes]
 
* [http://www.pbs.org/empires/victoria/empire/rhodes.html PBS: Empires; Queen Victoria; The Changing Empire; Characters : Cecil Rhodes]

Revision as of 14:25, 10 October 2016

The Right Honourable
Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes ww.jpg
Rhodes, c. 1900
7th Prime Minister of the Cape Colony
In office
17 July 1890 – 12 January 1896
MonarchQueen Victoria
GovernorHenry Loch
Sir William Gordon Cameron
Hercules Robinson
Preceded byJohn Gordon Sprigg
Succeeded byJohn Gordon Sprigg
Personal details
BornCecil John Rhodes
(1853-07-05)5 July 1853
Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, England
Died26 March 1902(1902-03-26) (aged 48)
Muizenberg, Cape Colony
(now South Africa)
Resting placeWorld's View,
Matopos Hills, Southern Rhodesia
(now Zimbabwe)
NationalityBritish
RelationsReverend Francis William Rhodes (Father)
Louisa Peacock Rhodes (Mother)
Francis William Rhodes (Brother)
Alma materOriel College, Oxford
OccupationBusinessman
Politician

Cecil John Rhodes PC (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902)[1] was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in South Africa, who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896. An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895. South Africa's Rhodes University is also named after him. Rhodes set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, which is funded by his estate, and put much effort towards his vision of a Cape to Cairo Railway through British territory.

Notes

References

Sources

Monographs

  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).

Encyclopedia

  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).

Journal articles

  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).

Newspaper articles

  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).

Websites

Further reading

  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value). (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 3738: attempt to index field 'punct_skip' (a nil value).

External links